本文摘要:Microsoft founder Bill Gates is pouring $4 million into a project to create killer mosquitoes that destroy each other through sex.微软公司创始人比尔.盖茨将投资400万美元(约合2654万元人民币),借以培育需要在交配中杀掉对方的“刺客蚊”。


Microsoft founder Bill Gates is pouring $4 million into a project to create killer mosquitoes that destroy each other through sex.微软公司创始人比尔.盖茨将投资400万美元(约合2654万元人民币),借以培育需要在交配中杀掉对方的“刺客蚊”。Its a bold bid to curb malaria, a deadly disease typically transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes.这是掌控疟疾的大胆尝试。疟疾是一种可怕疾病,一般来说通过不受病毒感染的蚊子叮咬传播。Tech mogul Gates will use funds from his own charity organization – the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation – to eradicate malaria within a generation.科技巨头盖茨将利用其慈善机构比尔和梅琳达.盖茨基金会的资金,在“一代”之内根治疟疾。

The plan is to create genetically modified male mosquitoes that mate with their female counterparts in the wild.该计划将培育出转基因雄蚊,而这些雄蚊将不会在大自然条件下和雌蚊交配。Only female mosquitoes bite, so Gates army of gene-engineered male mosquitoes would be safe to humans.只有雌蚊会传染人类,所以这一项目培育的众多转基因雄蚊会严重威胁人类。Whats important is that these male mosquitoes contain a self-limiting gene that gets passed onto female mates.最重要的是,这些雄蚊有一种自限基因,交配时需要传播到雌蚊体内。

When the females give birth, their offspring will die before adulthood thanks to the gene.雌蚊繁殖时,她们的后代将不会因为装载这种基因而早夭。Mosquitoes only start biting people once theyre adults, so given enough time, the danger of blood-sucking female mosquitoes could be eradicated.蚊子只不会在成年之后传染人类,只要时间充足,来自猫雌蚊的危险性就可以根治。This means it would be possible to stem the spread of malaria through mosquito bites.这就意味著人类有可能通过切断蚊虫传染掌控疟疾传播。Theyre developed by a UK company called Oxitec, which has dubbed the creations Friendly Mosquitos — although their female mates may disagree.英国公司Oxitec负责管理培育这些雄蚊,该公司称作“友好关系蚊”,不过,雌蚊们有可能不这么想要。


Oxitec has already created gene-engineered mosquitoes to deal with the Zika virus.Oxitec公司早已培育出对付寨卡病毒的转基因蚊子。In some areas, the wild populations of Aedes aegypti (the mosquito that carries Zika) have been reduced by 90 percent.在一些地区,埃及伊蚊(装载寨卡病毒的蚊子)的野生种群数量早已增加了90%。But the malaria-carrying Anopheles mosquitoes require a new genetically modified breed to mate with.但是装载疟疾病毒的疟蚊必须一种新的转基因蚊子来交配。Oxitecs killer sex mosquitoes are expected to be ready for trials by the end of 2020.Oxitec公司的交配刺客蚊未来将会在2020年底之前拒绝接受实验。

However, not everyone is happy about the prospect of genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes being used to prematurely terminate their offspring.然而,并不是每个人都寄予厚望用转基因蚊子使后代早夭这个方法的前景。Oxitecs work has been heavily criticized by Friends of the Earth, a charity dedicated to protect the environment.环境保护慈善机构“地球之友”严厉批评了Oxitec公司的研究。

Back in 2012, Friends of the Earths Eric Hoffman said: Trials of its mosquitoes must not move forward in the absence of comprehensive and impartial reviews of the environmental, human health and ethical risks.2012年,“地球之友”的埃里克-霍夫曼说道:“在没全面、公正地审查环境、人类身体健康和道德风险的情况下,Oxitec公司的蚊子实验绝不更进一步前进。”In a statement at the time, Friends of the Earth said: The GM mosquitoes are intended to reduce the wild population by mating with naturally occurring mosquitoes and producing progeny which don’t survive, thus reducing the population and therefore the transmission of the tropical disease dengue fever.“地球之友”当时发声明说道:“通过与大自然发育的雌蚊交配产生无法存活的后代,增加野生种群,从而增加蚊子数量,增加热带疾病登革热的传播,这就是培育转基因蚊子的目的。”The company has been widely criticized for putting its commercial interests ahead of public and environmental safety.“该公司因将其商业利益置放公众和环境安全性之上而颇受抨击。”Its first releases of GM mosquitoes took place controversially in the Cayman Islands, where there is no biosafety law or regulation.“该公司将第一批转基因蚊子投入在了没生物安全性法律或法规的开曼群岛,这一作法极具争议。


”Oxitec staff have been closely involved in developing risk assessment guidelines for GM insects worldwide, leading to concerns about lack of independent scrutiny and conflict of interest.“Oxitec公司的员工紧密参予了全球转基因昆虫风险评估指南的制订,因此有审查过于独立国家、不存在利益冲突之斥。”But Bill Gates is a longtime supporter of Oxitecs work.但比尔.盖茨仍然反对Oxitec公司的研究。Back in 2010, he gave approximately $4.9 million to Oxitec to help fund early work on killer mosquito projects.早在2010年,他就向Oxitec公司资助约490万美元,用作“刺客蚊”项目的早期研发。He has extensively funded work on eradicating malaria, a disease that kills around 440,000 people every year.他普遍资助了歼灭疟疾的研究工作,全球每年约有44万人杀于疟疾。

Complications that threaten human life include swelling of the blood vessels in the brain, a build-up of fluid in the lungs, organ failure (of the kidneys, liver or spleen), anemia, and low blood sugar.脑血管出血、肺部积液、器官中风(肾、肝、脾)、贫血和低血糖等疟疾并发症都可严重威胁人类生命。